Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) issues such as judicial and police cooperation, border management and migration have become increasingly important within the EU and now form a rapidly growing area of Canada-EU cooperation.
The EU has gained competency in JHA matters, a development in part because of the globalized, transnational nature of issues such as migration; terrorism and its financing; trafficking in drugs, arms and persons; and organized crime. In such an environment, governments need to coordinate the measures they take in order to protect public security and the legitimate movement of people. Canada and the EU hold regular consultations on matters relating to justice, freedom and security. This dialogue includes representation from many departments and agencies on behalf of each partner.
Collaboration with the EU as with other international partners can bring tangible benefits to our citizens. Our Advanced Passenger Information/Passenger Name Record (API/PNR) treaty, signed in October 2005, enables the Canada Border Services Agency to collect advance data on airline passengers flying into Canada from the EU. The Canada-Europol Cooperation Agreement, signed in November 2005, helps Canadian law enforcement authorities to provide enhanced security to Canadian citizens. The point of contact for Europol in Canada will be the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP).
In the EU, the relevant judicial authorities of each Member State cooperate on criminal issues such as organised crime, terrorism, corruption, illicit drug trafficking, illicit arms trafficking, offences against children, etc. EU structures have also been created to enhance judicial cooperation between the Member States' competent judicial authorities.
One such structure is the EU's judicial cooperation unit Eurojust, located in The Hague. It is composed of a judge, prosecutor or police officer of equivalent competence from each Member State to coordinate investigations and prosecutions concerning serious cross-border crime.