Through its contributions to United Nations peacekeeping operations in Sudan and South Sudan, Canada contributes to the improvement of the security situation for all the Sudanese and South-Sudanese peoples, the development of two viable states at peace internally and with each other, and the creation of suitable conditions for the resumption of the Darfur peace process. The mandate of the United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) terminated on July 9, 2011, following the secession of South Sudan and the conclusion of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA).
There are currently three international peace operations in Sudan and South Sudan:
In addition to diplomatic, financial and material support, Canada has committed up to 50 Canadian Forces personnel and 25 civilian police officers to peacekeeping operations in Sudan and South Sudan.
On July 31, 2007, the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) approved Resolution 1769, which established a joint United Nations/African Union mission known as UNAMID. This mission incorporated the African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS), which had been deployed to the Darfur region in 2004. The transfer of authority to UNAMID occurred on December 31, 2007. UNAMID is mandated to support the security of humanitarian operations and personnel and to protect civilians facing imminent violence.
UNAMID is the largest peacekeeping force in UN history and the first UN/AU hybrid mission. Close to 50 nations contribute military, police and civilian peacekeepers to this mission.
On July 30, 2011, the Security Council renewed the mandate of UNAMID for one year.
In addition to assessed contributions provided to the United Nations to finance international peacekeeping operations, Canada provides, on a voluntary basis, training and equipment for African countries deploying civilian police, military and Formed Police Units (FPUs) to UNAMID. For example, Canada provides GILA-armoured vehicles as well as non-armoured equipment to a number of African FPUs deploying to UNAMID.
Training initiatives funded by Canada help prepare peacekeeping personnel and units deploying to UNAMID to face the challenges of such a mission. Part of this training was conducted by the Pearson Peacekeeping Centre, a Canadian-based organization, which conducts specialized courses such as Gender Based Violence Prevention and Investigation, Staff Skills Enhancement and Logistics Training.
As part of Operation SATURN, Canadian Forces personnel are deployed to UNAMID to provide needed expertise. Canadian civilian police officers are also deployed to UNAMID, providing their expertise to promote the rule of law and protect civilians.
Along with the United States, Canada currently co-chairs the "Friends of UNAMID." This group is comprised of interested UN Member States and UN personnel and meets periodically to coordinate donor support for the mission and to enhance mission effectiveness.
As one of the most important donors to AMIS, Canada provided essential airlift and ground transportation, as well as targeted expert deployments of civilian police and Canadian Forces personnel to the mission, as part of Operation AUGURAL.
Canadian support to AMIS began in 2004 with a contribution of basic army equipment, including helmets, body armour and maps. In 2005, this initial endowment was followed by the loan of 105 armoured vehicles to three African nations contributing troops to AMIS: Senegal, Rwanda and Nigeria. From December 31, 2007, to June 30, 2009, Canada extended this loan for the three countries to continue to use armoured vehicles as part of UNAMID.
Aviation assistance provided by Canadian-contracted helicopters to AMIS and during the transition period from AMIS to UNAMID greatly helped the mission in meeting logistics and operational support requirements.
Open conflict in the contested border region of Abyei escalated on May 19, 2011, culminating in the military occupation of the vast majority of Abyei by northern forces and the displacement of over 90,000 people. Through AU-led negotiations, the North and the South signed an agreement on June 20 on interim security and administration arrangements to make Abyei a demilitarized zone patrolled by approximately 4,200 Ethiopian peacekeepers. Pursuant to the agreement, the UN Security Council passed resolution 1990 on June 27, authorizing Sudan's third peacekeeping mission, the UN Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA).
On July 8, the UN Security Council voted for the creation of a new mission — the United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan (UNMISS) — that came into being on July 9, 2011. According to UNSC Resolution 1996, UNMISS has a mandate focusing on consolidating peace and security in the Republic of South Sudan through the promotion of political accommodation, democratic governance, conflict mitigation, rule of law and security sector reform, as well as the protection of civilians. The mission includes up to 7,000 military personnel, as well as up to 900 civilian police personnel, and a civilian component, including human rights experts.
Canada strongly supports the UN-mandated mission as part of the government's ongoing commitment to lasting peace and stability in Sudan and South Sudan. Canada will continue to deploy Canadian police officers to support UN peacekeeping operations in South Sudan, and members of the Canadian Forces will participate in this mission as part of Operation Soprano.
On July 5, 2012, the United Nations Security Council renewed UNMISS' mandate for another year.
Canada provided support to the United Nations Peacekeeping Mission in the Sudan (UNMIS). This mission was established by UN Security Council Resolution 1590 on March 24, 2005. It was mandated to monitor the implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), which was signed in January 2005 and ended the Second Sudanese Civil War. As part of the implementation of the CPA, UNMIS provided support for national elections held in April 2010. The mission also conducted patrols to monitor and report on ceasefire violations, assisted with the disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration of combatants, and supported preparation for the 2011 referendum.
Canadian Forces personnel and civilian police officers participated in UNMIS. The Canadian Forces were deployed as part of Operation SAFARI and the civilian police worked with the South Sudan Police Service to increase their capacity and promote the rule of law.
Close to 60 countries contributed military, police and civilian peacekeepers to this mission. The mandate of UNMIS terminated on July 9, 2011, following the secession of South Sudan and the conclusion of the CPA.
Learn more: Canada and Peace Operations